Anti Aging Today

Anti-Aging Nutrition Glossary - G

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Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL)

A related product to GHB (Gamma hydroxybutyrate).

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)

GHB is a simple carbohydrate fond naturally in every cell of the human body. GHB is both a metabolite of and a precursor to an amino acid called GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid). The FDA has labeled GHB has a 'date-rape' drug, and wants to ban it from the market. GHB itself does not cause a person to remain conscious, engage in sex and then forget what they did. The problems occur when you take GHB with high levels of alcohol, since both alcohol and GHB are metabolized by the same enzyme in the body.

Garcinia Cambogia

Fruit from India that contains Hydroxicitric Acid (HCA), an organic acid influencing carbohydrate and fat metabolism


A compound thought to protect you against cancer. It is found in soy based food products. It surpresses the production of stress proteins in cells, proteins that otherwise help cancer cells survive destruction by the immune system.

Ginkgo Biloba

A herb shown to enhance mental acuity. Some research has shown that Ginkgo Biloba increases cerebral blood flow to the brain. Also, boost brain levels of adenosine triphosphate and scavenge free radicals. Combined with ginger, gingko has also been shown too reduce stress induced anxiety.


A family of herbs with adaptogenic properties affecting energy. There are different ginsengs (Asian, American, Siberian). Some ginsengs have shown to have mental enhancing effects. Studies show that an individual ginseng component called ginsenoside Rb acts favorably in reversing memory deficits by increasing he secretion of acetychilone. Studies also suggest that ginseng extract improved learning and retention processes.


A fiber derived from the Amorphophallus Konjac root, a perennial plant of the Araceae family. The root is low in protein, lipids (fats), calories and vitamins, but, because of its glucomannan content, it can provide many tangible bodybuilding and health advantages. Glucomannan can help mitigate insulin response to high glycemic corbohydrates, which might allow bodybuilders to add variety to low carb diets and still accrue the benefits of the regimens. Glucomannan may also help remove fat from the body.


Organic compound found in cartilage and joint fluid; relieves joint pain and may help in healing some joint injuries. Glucosamine is a provider of the building blocks of joints.

Glucose (monosaccharide)

Type of sugar that circulates in the bloodstream, thus the term 'blood glucose levels' or 'blood sugar'. All carbohydrates, whether simple or complex, are eventually converted to glucose in the body. Glycogen is many units of glucose together.

Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF)

GTF is thought to be a complex of chromium, nicotinic acid, and the amino acids glycine, cystein and glutamic acid (these aminos are components of gluthathione). GTF is thought to be synthesize by the liver. In many people, chromium is likely the deficient substrate for GTF formation. GTF is found in foods such as organ meats, whole gains, cheese, mushrooms and brewer's yeast.


An amino acid. Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle tissue. Studies are beginning to show that having extra glutamine in your body may be important to maximize muscle growth, by increasing growth hormone levels. Glutamine also is important to maintain proper health, and is shown to have anabolic and anticatabolic properties.

During intense training, the signal for muscle breakdown (which is a bad thing) may be the release of skeletal muscle glutamine. That means that each time you train, your muscles release glutamine which in part triggers a catabolic state (a catabolic state is synonymous with muscle breakdown). By proving Glutamine, documented clinical studies have shown that Glutamine will have a significant impact on maintaining a positive nitrogen balance which is essential to muscular development and recovery.

Glycemic Index

The glycemic Index (GI) measures only the rise in blood sugar elicited by various foods and drinks. It is not like an index of factors like nutrient density or vitamin or fiber content. The GI can help you if you want to avoid a spike in blood sugar, and insulin.


Glycerin is a trihydric alcohol that is derived from animal fats and plants emollients. It is used in many protein bars to give the bar a soft texture and to make it easy to chew. Glycerin yields 4.32 calories per gram. Glycerin is a crystalline, viscous liquid formed when fat molecules split. It is half as sweet as sugar and is used to keep bars moist and to plasticize other foods such as fudge, gum, geltin, etc. The big question is if glycerin is a carb or is it a new 'category'. The reason that glycerin is not listed as a carbohydrate by some manufacturers is that glycerin does not effect blood glucose or insulin levels. However, the FDA states that glycerin is to be listed as a carbohydrate; thus the controversy.


It is a term for many units of glucose strung together. The body stores glycogen in two areas, the liver and the muscles. Only about 5 grams, or 20 calories worth of glucose flows in the blood. Liver stores about 75 to 100 grams, or 300 to 400 calories; an hour of aerobics can burn up half the liver glycogen content. The muscles store around 360 grams, or 1,440 calories. Carbohydrate loading is one technique used to increase muscle glycogen content.

By not consuming enough carbohydrates, you deplete both liver and muscle glycogen reserves. While complex carbs are considered to be more desirable than simple carbs, simple carbs are more efficient after a workout for replacing muscle glycogen. Simple carbs are absorbed faster, and promote a greater insulin output. A carbohydrate drink with at least 50 grams of carb will do the trick.

Glycogen (Muscle)

Muscle glycogen is extremely important for bodybuilding, since it's the primary fuel that powers anaerobic training, such as lifting weights. Glycogen that's stored in a muscle is available only to that muscle because muscles lack a certain enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase, that's needed to release glucose into the blood. Muscles can absorb glucose without insulin, which why exercise helps prevent diabetes.

Glycogen (Liver)

Liver glycogen is a fuel reserve that helps maintain blood glucose levels. This is important because the brain relies on a constant supply of glucose to function properly.

Grape Seed Extract

Source of proanthocyanadins, an important antioxidant.

Green Tea

Perhaps more notable, recent research has shown that green tea reduces the risk of developing stomach cancer by 50% and esophageal cancer by 6-%. No one knows for sure, but scientists think that polyphenols in green tea protect health by combating free radicals.

The main constituents of green tea are polyphenols, caffeien, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds, it also contains small amounts of carbohydrates and lipids. Also, green tea contains polyphenols, theanine, and catechins. The greater the theanine content in green tea, the higher the price.

Growth Hormone

Growth hormone (hGH), or somatotropin, is a hormone responsible for normal body growth and development by stimulating protein production in muscle cells and energy release from the breakdown of fats. Known in the medical community as somatotropin. It is a powerful anabolic hormone that affects all systems of the body and plays an important role in muscle growth. It is a peptide hormone, which is composed of 191 amino acids linked together. It is rapidly metabolized by the liver and has a half-life in the blood of approxiamately 17 to 45 minutes.


Source of caffeine. Comes from the seed of a herb found in the Amazon, long popular among Brazilians for its stimulatory effects.


Guggulsterone is a ketosteroid specifically called Z-Guggulsterone. Its effect on the thyroid is that it increases the metabolic rate via stimulation of the thyroid gland. Studies indicate that Guggulsterone can result in higher levels of T4 (Thyroxine), one of the two main thyroid hormones.

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