Anti Aging Today

Anti-Aging Nutrition Glossary - B

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B-Complex Vitamins

A group of eleven known vitamins that work together in your body. All play vital roles in the conversion of food into energy. Essential for the normal functioning of the nervous system, and the maintenance of good digestion. Helps promote healthy skin, hair, and eyes. These are water soluble vitamins, which means they cannot be stored by your body and must be replaced every day.

B-1 (Thiamin)

A vitamin which maintains energy levels, supports brain function (memory). Aids in digestion. Necessary for metabolism of sugar and starch to provide energy. Maintains a healthy nervous system. Alcohol can cause deficiencies of this vitamin and all the B-complex vitamins.

B-2 (Riboflavin)

A vitamin which helps with energy production and amino acid production. Helps body obtain energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Helps maintain good vision and healthy skin.

B-3 (Niacin)

A vitamin Important in carbohydrate metabolism, formation of testosterone and other hormones, formation of red blood cells and maintaining the integrity of all cells. Helps body utilize protein, fats, and carbohydrates. Necessary for a healthy nervous system and digestive system. It also lowers elevated blood cholesterol levels when taken in large amounts of more than 1,000 milligrams a day.

B-5 (Pantothenic Acid)

A vitamin which supports carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism; hemoglobin synthesis. Helps release energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fat. Needed to support a variety of body functions, including the maintenance of a healthy digestive system.

B-6 (Pyridoxine)

A vitamin which supports glycogen and nitrogen metabolism; production and transport of amino acids; production and maintenance of red blood cells (hemoglobin) Essential for the body's utilization of protein. Needed for the production of red blood cells, nerve tissues, and antibodies. Women taking oral contraceptives have lower levels of B-6.

B-12 (Cobalamin)

Necessary for carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Important to amino acid and fatty acid synthesis; essential for hemoglobin and nerve cell growth and maintenance. The anti-stress vitamin, sometimes prescribed for stress reduction.

BCAA's (Branch Chain Amino Acids)

Leucine, Valine, and Isoleucine are called "branch chain" aminos due to their molecular structure, and are important essential amino acids well known for their anticatabolic (muscle-saving) benefits. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's postively affect skeletal muscle growth, enhance fat loss, help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentiate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of postive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burns fat. Studies have shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more bodyfat than those not taking BCAA's.

BCAAs are used as a source of energy for muscle cells. During prolonged exercise, BCAAs are released from skeletal muscles and their carbon backbones are used as fuel, while their nitrogen portion is used to form another amino acid, Alanine. Alanine is then converted to Glucose by the liver. This form of energy production is called the Alanine-Glucose cycle, and it plays a major role in maintaining the body's blood sugar balance.


A phytonutrient carotenoid with antioxidant and provitamin A activity. In addition to providing the body with a safe source of Vitamin A, beta carotene works with other natural protectors to defend your cells from harmful free radical damage. This is an important micrinutrient in helping the body with metabolic functions, such as recovery from exercise.

Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB)

It is a compound mande in the body and a metabolite of the essential amino acid Leucine. Studies have found that HMB has a decrease in stress-induced muscle protein breakdown. Studies also found that HMB may enhance increases in both muscle size and strength when combined with resistance training.

There are a number of theories why you may need HMB. The first, is that under stressful conditions, the body may not make enough HMB to satisfy the increased needs of tissues. It could also be that stress may alter enzymes or concentration of certain biochemicals that decrease normal HMB production. Another theory is that HMB may regulated enzymes sresponsible for muscle tissue breakdown.

Biological Value (BV)

An attempt to measure how efficiently protein us used in the body. Biological Value is derived from providing a measure intake of protein, then noting the nitrogen uptake versus nitrogen excretion. The actually process is much more complicated though. In theory, a BV value of 100 is maximal. Some studies claim they have a higher BV than 100, but they refer to a chemical score, not the biological value of whey.


A vitamin that helps with energy metabolism, fatty acid and nucleic acid synthesis.


It is a trace mineral. Studies show that Boron helps the body retain minerals, such as Calcium and Magnesium. Large amounts of Boron, over 10 milligrams a day, can be toxic, particularly to the organs that manufacture testosterone. You can find traces of Boron in all the food groups, even in wine, with the greatest concentration in prunes, raisins, parsley flakes, and almonds. A 1987 study showed that Boron could dramatically increase testosterone levels, however, the study was for postmenopausal women who had testosterone deficiencies. Once their boron-rich diets brought their testosterone levels back up to normal, those levels stabilized, and they didn't get any higher no matter how many more prunes or parsley flakes that they ate. Thus, it is somewhat unproven that boron can help build muscle mass by increasing your testosterone levels. However, a lack of boron in your diet may have a 'negative' impact on energy utilization.

Bovine cartilage

A source of mucopolysaccharides which have anti-inflamatory and joint protective properties.

Bovine Colostrum Usually from cows, a dairy product that has similar properties to human colostrum. Normally, adults cannot absorb colostrum's antibodies and growth factors the way a newborn can. But it still has superior nutritional values which may make it a useful supplement.


A plan native to Asia that has fragrant white flowers and small triangular seeds. The edible seeds are often ground into flour. According to animal studies, buckwheat is better than casein (a milk protein) for promoting muscle growth and body growth and decreasing blood lipids. For persons allergic to wheat gluten, it provides a gluten-free food with uses similar to gains. Roasted buckwheat is known as Kasha. Buckwheat is usually available as flour.

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