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Anti-Aging Nutrition Glossary - P

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Paba (Para Aminobenzoic Acid)

Important for the formation of red blood cells. Aids in the conversion of protein into energy. Necessary for healthy skin, and hair pigmentation.

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5)

A vitamin which supports carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism; hemoglobin synthesis. Helps release energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fat. Needed to support a variety of body functions, including the maintenance of a healthy digestive system.


A soluble fiber found in the skins of fruits (apples and peaches) and vegetables. One study found that eating Pectin will make you feel full longer. Researchers speculate that Pectin may slow digestin and keep food in your stomach longer.

Phaseolus Vulgaris

An ingredient which has been shown to effectively prevent the body from absorbing up to 35 grams of unwanted starch per meal. It is found in white kidney beans.


An amino acid, one of the main ingredients to enhance brain function. It has also been used to relieve stress.

Phosphatidylserine (PS)

A phospholid. An ingredient which may block cortisol (a hormone which breaks down muscle cells into fuel). Alsom reported to increase levels of glucose, the brain's energy source.


Mineral that is structural component of all cells (including muscle); necessary for energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and growth / maintenance of all tissues.


Polyphenols are potent and wide ranging in their physiological prperties. They are antioxidants, cancer preventatives, cavity and gingivitis preventatives, prebiotics and even internal deodorizers.


Mineral that helps maintain cellular integrity and water balance, nerve transmission and energy metabolism; necessary for muscle contraction. Potassium helps to lower blood pressure, lower risk of stroke, maintain muscle balance and prevent muscle cramping. Potassium helps to reduce the amount of sodium in the body.


The "mother" steroid hormone from which most other steroid (sex) hormones are made, including DHEA. Has beneficial neurotransmitter effects.


Potent antioxidant phytonutrient found in some pine needles (pycnogenol) and grape seeds and skins (grape seed extract), it is especially synergistic with vitamin C making them more powerful antioxidants together than by themselves.


Primary macronutrient for growth and maintenance of our body's structural parts (including muscle). Cannot be stored, so must be replenished through diet. (1 gram=4 calories).

Protein (Egg)

Source of protein with high Protein Efficiency Ratio, usually in egg white form (albumin) when used in protein powder to avoid cholesterol in egg yolk. Egg protein is the standard by which all other proteins are measured because of its very high ration of indispensable amino acids (also called essential amino acids because they must be supplied to the body from food or supplements) to dispensable amino acids.

Protein (Soy)

Soy protein does not offer much benefits to a bodybuilder. Soy protein does not form a good curd in the stomach, thus making it a fast protein. The amino acid pattern in soy is inferior to that of milk proteins, and not as favorable toward promoting growth.

Protein (Whey)

Dairy source of protein (other than cassein), known for high levels of BCAA's and high nitrogen retention. Made from milk curd, whey protein is the Rolls Royce of proteins because it has a superior amino acid composition (including high levels of leucine, arguably the most important branched chain amino acid), superior biological value (meaning that more of what you eat gets digested and into your system), is very low in lactose (a milk sugar that most adults have difficulty digesting).

Protein (Whey Hydrolyzed)

When you hydrolyze whey protein, you permanently modify the native protein structure, meaning that the protein has been denatured. A denatured whey protein has little or no biological activity. The hydrolysis process breaks apart peptide bonds, which destroys the protein structure and the bital whey protein biological activity. However, you still get the amino acids of whey proteins from the hydrolyzed whey protein. Half the reason bodybuilders eat protein is to obtain these healthful smaller protein chains.

Protein (Whey Ion-Exchange)

This special process revolved around the positive and negative charges or ion properties of whey protein. It featured the use of a resin to isolate the protein material from the whey. This is followed by ultrafiltration methods to further concentrate the protein. This contains 90% protein, and less than 1% lactose. True ion exchange whey protein is clear in a solution.

Protein (Whey Microfiltration)

Microfiltration Whey Protein features filtering membranes with microscopic holes. This is also sometimes called Cross-Flow filtration, or Nanofiltration, depending on the size of the holes of the filtering membranes.


It is a weed that is edible, and sometimes put on salads, mostly in Europe. It is loaded with linolenic acid, and omega-3 fatty acid that may help reduce the risk of heart attack, and improve the health of cell membranes in the eyes and brain. It is also an excellent source of Vitamin E, providing 6 times as much as spinach.


Source of proanthocyanadins.

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B-6)

A vitamin which supports glycogen and nitrogen metabolism; production and transport of amino acids; production and maintenance of red blood cells (hemoglobin) Essential for the body's utilization of protein. Needed for the production of red blood cells, nerve tissues, and antibodies. Women taking oral contraceptives have lower levels of B-6.


A key energy metabolite for the breakdown of fuel (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, etc.) to energy in our bodies, pyruvate can give us increased energy, assist in burning fat as fuel, and have anticatabolic effects (such as producing alanine). Pyruvate acid is alpha - ketopropionic acid. Studies have shown that pyruvate can help decrease fatigue, and increase vigor with only six grams per day.

The human body breaks down carbohydrates for energy though a process called glycolysis. As these sugars and starches are metabolized, pyruvate (pyruvic acid) is produced, which readily enters the mitochondria of cells to create energy fueling the muscles and other parts of the body.

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