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Anti-Aging Nutrition Glossary - C


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Caffeine

Alkaloid that stimulates alertness and boosts energy. A herbal compound that enhances alertness and fights fatigue. Caffeine increases endurance during prolonged activity by increasing blood epinephrine (adrenaline) levels, thereby allowing fat cells to break down more readily during aerobic activity. Caffeine also makes a muscle contraction more forceful.

Calcium

Most abundant mineral in the body; essential for the formation and repair of bone and teeth, but also essential to nerve transmission, muscle contraction, blood clotting and other metabolic activities as well. Long term calcium deficiency is linked to degenerative bone diseases.

Carbohydrate

There are two basic forms of carbohydrates: Simple & Complex. Simple carbs are usually devoid of fiber and include such foods as refined sugars, fruit juices, and apple sauce. The problem with simple carbs is that they promote a large insulin surge, which can lead to hypoglycemia. Complex carbs are absorbed more slowly, so they don't cause as great an insulin surge as the simple type. Primary macronutrient source of energy in the body; burned as glucose and stored in muscle as glycogen (excess stored as fat) and includes all sugars (1 gram yields 4 calories).

Carnitine (L-Carnitine)

Non-structural amino acid that transports fatty acids into muscle cells for use as energy fuel. Carnitine is water-soluble and can be made in the body from the amino acids lysine and methionine with the assistance of vitamins C, B6 and Niacin, which act as coenzymes in the process.

Carnitine as discovered in meat in 1905, and was once called Vitamin T, because they thought it was a vitamin at first. 98% of te body's carntine exists in the heart and skelatal muscles. Carnitine is synthesized in the liver from Lysiine and Methionine, but half of the body's daily requirement for Carnitine comes from foods sources, including meat, poultry, fish and some diary products. Without supplemental carnitine, some people cannot use fat as energy.

Casein

Primary protein found in milk, along with whey protein. Casein is the insoluble protein fraction of milk. It is absorbed more slowly than whey and provides the body with amino acids over an extended period in comparison to whey protein, the soluble protein fraction in milk.

Catabolic

Metabolic condition in which muscle is broken down and energy is released.

Catabolism

Protein breakdown in muscles.

Cat's Claw

An herb used in South American folk medicine for its anti-inflamatory and immune system protective properties.

Chick Embroyo Extract

This type of extract contains short amino acid chains called oligopeptides, plus additional essential amino acids and trace elements (iron, copper, cobalt, selenium, and zinc). The peptides in the extract possess both cell stimulating and protective properties. The peptides indicated that they were activating growth factor receptors in them.

The extract works as a general tonic and stimulates the adrenal gland, normalizing its function. It also acts as a mild stimulant and an antidepressant; and it improves libido, erectile function, sparmatogenesis and other aspects of sexual function in men and women. It also improves sleep and promotes weight loss.

Chitosan

Chitosan is a natural product extracted from Chitin (by products of Crustacean shell extracts). Chitosan and chitin are waste products of the crab and shrimp industry. It can be used to inhibit fat digestion and as a drug delivery transport agent. It also has been used as a cholesterol lowering substance. Chitosan is marketed as a 'fat blocker'.

It appears that it can impede fat absorption by 'gelling' with fat in the small intestine. Side effect of Chitosan is that since it is made from sea food, some people have allergic responses to it. Also, you need a high concentration of Chitosan for it to 'gel' with fat.

Choline

A B-fatty acid involved in the production of neurotransmitters in the brain that regulate mood, appetite, behavior, memory, etc. Most effective in phosphatidyl choline form. It is believed to help concentration and alertness. Studies indicate that it improves cognitive performance. Blood levels of choline decrease during prolonged exercise.

Cholesterol

A fat-like sterol used by the body for production of hormones (including testosterone), vitamin D and cell membranes; high levels in the blood stream are a marker for heart disease.

Choline

One of the elements that is found in lecithin. Considered important in the transmission of nerve impulses. Choline is involved in the formation of the neurotransmitter acetycholine. Choline has been linked to reducing body fat and improving exercise performance.

Chondroitin

Chondroitin is extracted from bovine tracheas or shark cartilage. It is a major component of connective tissue, especially cartilage. Chondroitin can stimulate repair of cartilage cells and also black enzymes that damage joints.

Chromium / Chromium Picolinate

Chromium increases the efficiency of the hormone insulin, which the pancreas releases after you eat carbohydrates or protein. Chromium acts to make the receptor of muscle cells more sensitive to insulin (which allows you to store more carbohydrates in the muscle cells as glycogen rather than in fat cells as lipids). Insulin also helps muscles use amino acids for building protein rather than breaking them down. Chromium can promote modest muscular gains and decreases in bodyfat (thus helps build lean mass). Exercise increases the excretion rate of chromium.

Chrysin

An anti-aromatase, which means it stops excess testosterone from converting to estrogen. Also, a compound with significant antiviral activity - especially in relation to the HIV. It is possible that Chrysin taken in the correct dosage could reduce cortisol secretion due to the body's sensing less stress. Chrysin may act as an anti estrogen by inhibiting aromatase activity, limiting the conversion of testosterone to estrogen.

Citrimax

See Hydroxycitrate

Clenbuterol

This drug is classified as a Beta-2 agonist, and is used for treating asthma. It is not an anabolic steroid, or a growth hormone. Currently, it is not approved for sale in the United States, but it is sold in Europe, under various names, such as Spiropent, Monores, and Ventipulmin.

Researchers in 1987 noted an unusual effect in animals when using this drug. Their muscles grew, while they lost body fat. The main side effects associated with this drug include tremors, heart rhythm disturbances, headaches, nervousness, excessive sweating and insomnia.

Bodybuilders use it because it mimics the actions of Epinephrine. It simulates a process called Thermogenesis, which turns fat calories into heat and which results in a loss of body fat. The side effects start when you use more than 80 micrograms or more. The dosage that's used to treat asthma is around 20 to 40 micrograms twice a day. The muscle building dose would be over 80 micrograms in humans, but scientists consider it to be dangerous and unethical. Another problem is that any effects you get from it wears off rapidly. Bodybuilders who have used this drug show that it is better for promoting fat burning than for muscle building.

Coenzyme Q10

This antioxidant is shown to have heart protective and energy productive properties. Co-Q10 is involved in cellular energy production. Several studies have reported improved endurance after taking Co-Q10. It is considered one of the best antioxidants.

Colostrum

Colostrum is a fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals prior to milk production. It has a high concentration of immunoglobins, antimicrobial agents and hormone factors. Colostrum provides major immune and gastrointestinal system benefits.

Bovine Colostrum usually comes from cows, a dairy product that has similar properties to human colostrum. Normally, adults cannot absorb colotrum's antobodies and growth factors the way a newborn can. But it still has superior nutritional values which may make it a useful supplement.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)

CLA occurs naturally in whole milk and red meat. A collective term used to designate a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of the essential fat linoleic acid. It is actually a fat, derived from linoleic acid (an essential fatty acid). Studies have shown that CLA can increase lean body mass and decrease fat, inhibit the growth of tumors and enhance immune function. CLA is found naturally in beef, cheese and whole milk.

Copper

Active in the storage and release of iron to form hemoglobin for red blood cells.

Cortisol

A catabolic hormone that is released and increases in response to stress when the body is subjected to trauma such as intense exercises, including weight training. Excess cortisol is known to increase catabolism (protein breakdown in muscles). Cortisol leads to muscle breakdown through promoting a release of muscle amino acids for transport to the liver, where the amino acids are converted into glucose.

Creatine (monohydrate)

A muscle fuel that is extracted naturally from meat and fish, or synthesized in the lab. Once it is in the muscles, creatine combines with phosphorous to make Creatine Phosphate (CP), a high powered chemical that rebuilds the muscles ultimate energy source, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). CP powers your muscles for high intensity exercise for short periods only, consequently, athletes who compete in power and sprint event will have an advantage if they take supplemental creatine. More CP in the muscle cell translates into a greater resistance to fatigue. Also, CP helps with the transfer of energy in the muscle cells, thus speeding up the action, which may enhance performances that are aerobically taxing. Reports says people who take creatine supplements may recover from intense activity faster and experience less post exercise muscle soreness.

Creatine is a naturally occurring compound in the muscle tissue and when converted in the muscle tissue to phosphocreatine during exercise can provide sudden bursts of energy. Insufficient amounts of phosphocreatine could result in a fatigued feeling in the muscle. The Creatine Monohydrate Powder provides enough energy to delay to onset of fatigue.

Creatine Monohydrate is a synthesized metabolite that is the powerful energizer providing instant energy and strength with better endurance and helps to maintain optimal levels of ATP production during intense exercise.

Why Monohydrate? Creatine comes in several forms. Creatine Monohydrate, Creatine Phosphate, and liquid form. Creatine Phosphate is much more expensive to manufacture while it offers no advantage. Liquid creatine has many problems associated with it. When mixing creatine monohydrate with a protein drink, or water, the creatine starts to become unstable. Within 24 hours, the creatine begins to change or ‘fallout’ into creatinine. Creatinine is a useless substance to the body. Thus, buying a premixed liquid form of creatine is not a legitimate product. The best absorbed form of creatine is the creatine monohydrate. Creatine monohydrate is better absorbed because it is more stable, resulting in higher concentration of available creatine.

Creatine & ATP. ATP is the molecule that releases the energy for contraction of muscles, the breakdown and synthesis of proteins and all other reactions requiring energy. In short, ATP is the energy molecule powering all of our movements. By giving off its energy through its high energy phosphate bond, ATP is reduced to ADP. The problem is that the amount of ATP that is stored in our cells is limited. Depending on the intensity of the activity, ATP supplies can be used up by converting to ADP within seconds.

So how do athletes run or workout for long periods. We can do that because there are three way to replenish ATP.

1) You can restore ATP using energy derived from the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates. This is a slow process that occurs in the mitochondria.

2) You can restore ATP through lactic acid, which is utilized to produce energy, which turns ADP back into ATP.

3) Through Creatine Monohydrate, which helps creatine phosphate create more ATP from ADP within seconds. It is a short term, high energy backup for ATP. It does not need carbohydrates, fats or oxygen to recharge ATP.

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